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焦点小组(focus group)与其它用户研究方法的区别

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焦点小组(focus group)是在可用性工程中使用的比较多的一种方法,通常用于产品功能的界定、工作流程的模拟、用户需求的发现、用户界面的结构设计和交互设计、产品的原型的接受度测试、用户模型的建立等。
焦点小组依据群体动力学原理请大约6~9个参试(participant)对某一主题或观念进行深入讨论。焦点小组实施之前,通常需要列出一张清单,包括要讨论的问题及各类数据收集目标。在实施过程中需要一名专业的主持人,主持人要在不限制用户自由发表观点和评论的前提下,保持谈论的内容不偏离主题。同时主持人还要让每个参试都能积极地参与,避免部分用户主导讨论,部分消极用户较少的参与讨论。
图1:焦点小组图例
attachments/200609/26_181738_01.jpg

焦点小组具有群体动力(Group dynamics)、自由开放(Open discussion)、定性数据(Qualitative data)和适合探索目的(exploratory purposes)等特点。群体动力是指焦点小组参试之间存在交互作用,参试之间会相互影响。任何一个参试的观点都会影响其他参试的反应,任何参试的观点和意见都是建立在其他参试的观点的基础上。从用户的角度来说焦点小组是自由开放的,没有特定框架约束的,虽然实际上主持人通常是按照预先计划的内容提出问题。焦点小组是一种定性方法,因此要避免通过焦点小组收集定量数据。在焦点小组的数据呈现过程中也要避免用定量的方式呈现结果。比如对A和B两种设计方案,8个参试中有6个赞成A方案,那么在报告中说有75%的用户赞成A方案这种说法是不科学的。因为焦点小组只是小样本,此时我们可以表述为8个用户中有6个用户赞成A方案。焦点小组特别适合用探索性目的的用户研究,在确定用户使用产品或者服务的习惯、使用模式、态度、确定用户语言、为新产品开发收集创意、为问卷调查等定量方法收集问题等方面有重要的作用。
除了焦点小组外,还有问卷调查、使用性测试等多种用户研究方法,这些方法各有其有特点和优势。以问卷调查和使用性测试为例,焦点小组与它们之间的差别主要表现在以下方面(见表1和表2):
表1:焦点小组和问卷调查的差异
attachments/200609/26_181920_02.jpg
表2:焦点小组和实用性测试的差异
attachments/200609/26_181927_03.jpg

总的来说,与其它用户研究方法相比,焦点小组相对来说更容易实施,在时间、花费、效率等方面都表现出优势;通过焦点小组的交互作用可以获得更多丰富的信息;焦点小组在理解用户态度、信念、观点等方面也有突出的优势。但焦点小组也有其自身的缺陷性,焦点小组对主持人要求较高,通常会因为主持人的原因产生较大的偏差;其结果会受到及强势(Domineering)和消极(passive)参试的影响;与深度访谈相比并不能揭示比较深层次的信息;而且焦点小组容易出现保守主义倾向,对中国人尤其如此。在可用性工程中,焦点小组并不适用于评价产品的可用性和用户界面,因为通常用户认为自己会怎么做与用户实际会怎么做会存在比较大的差异。

参考文献:
Allen B l, and Larson K. Focus Group Fundamentals. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Extension. www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1969B.pdf,2004
Krueger, R. A., and M. A. Casey. Focus groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research (3rd edition.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2000
Morgan, D. L. and R. A. Keueger .The Focus Group Kit (six book set). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage,1998
Nielsen J. Usability Engineering. New Jersey: AP Professional, 1993.

 
 
 
 
UPA中国授权刊登
UF2006用户体验年会系列资料

分类:UCD ,06/09/26 6:15 PM | 60,505 Views |

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    我是中国传媒大学传播研究方法研二的学生。起初只是对你说的和做的感到非常有意思,现在越来越发现我所学的和你的专业领域的一些东西重合。比如我们的定性研究里面就有小组访谈在内的一些研究方法。希望可以和你多多交流,得到你的一些对方法的建议!

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